4 Main, Key Design Principles of Mobile Networks – I will explain the 4 key design principles of cellular networks in plain English. Read more
BGP Route Reflector in Plain English, in this post, I will explain you the BGP Route Reflector basics, after you read this post, you will be able to answer many questions regarding BGP Route Reflectors.
BGP Route reflector routing loop arise in IP networks. In this post, I will illustrate the topology which will loop the IP packets between the routers and I will describe multiple possible solution and share a best practice to design BGP Route Reflector in an IP network. Read more
This is a case study which provides a detailed design steps for IGP protocol on hypothetical Internet Service Provider, called Ausnet.
Most fundamental network design attribute should be simplicity.
What is KISS Principle ? Okay it stands for Keep it Simple and Stupid but what does really it mean in networking ?
Flat OSPF network, or single area OSPF networks are real. In fact most of the OSPF network today deployed, is flat OSPF networks. But how many routers can be placed safely in an OSPF area ? Any number from the real world OSPF deployment ? I will share in this post.
Risk Management in Submarine Cable System
Submarine networks carry over 99% of the world’s Intercontinental electronic communications traffic.
Submarine Cable is probably the most important topic for the International traffic. More than 99% of the International traffic , including data, voice and video is carried over Submarine Cables.
But still submarine cables is not very well known topic among the network engineers, especially if you are not working in the Service Provider, Carrier or Telco. Read more
Last 10 days for the Service Provider Design Workshop
What is urban and rural area ? What is underserved area in networking ?
These definitions are heavily used in networking. And all broadband network designers take always these definitions into an account while they do their design. I think knowing these definitions as a network engineer is valuable for you. Read more
In this post, I will share many network engineering blogs which will be very beneficial for the network engineering and for those who want to learn more about network design.
What makes for a successful protocol ? Which protocol is successful and why ?
Have you ever been asked these questions ?
Is MPLS mandatory for Traffic Engineering? Read more
Tier 1,Tier 2 and Tier 3 Service Providers
What is tier in the first place ? If you are dealing with Service Provider networks, you hear this term a lot. But how we define Tier 1,Tier 2 and Tier 3 Service Providers ?
What should be their infrastructure to be seen as Tier 1 for example ?
Which tier is bigger in scale ? Which one is better for the customers to purchase a service from ?
Why Service Providers claim that they are Tier 1 or Tier 2 ? Read more
Is fate sharing bad thing in network design? Someone asked this question recently on my youtube channel and I want to share a post for the website followers as well.
First of all, what is fate sharing ? Below is the Wikipedia definition of fate sharing.
” Fate-sharing is an engineering design philosophy where related parts of a system are yoked together, so that they either fail together or not at all ” Read more
Introduction to VPN (Virtual Private Network)
Let’s start with the definition. VPN is a logical network and created over shared physical infrastructure.
Shared infrastructure can be private such as MPLS VPN of a Service Provider or over the Public infrastructure such as Internet.
There are many concepts to understand VPN in detail but in this article I will cover the definition, common design considerations, and some not well known concepts about it.
We can group VPNs into two categories. WAN and the Datacenter VPN Technologies.
WAN VPN Technologies
2.mGRE (Multipoint GRE)
8. MPLS L3 VPN Read more
Network mergers and acquisitions are the processes which can be seen in any type of businesses. As a network designers, our job to identify the business requirements of both existing networks and the merged network and finding best possible technical solutions for the business.
There are many different areas which need to be analyzed carefully. Wrong business requirement gathering and design analyze, definitely lead to catastrophic failures.
Business and network analysis and technical information gathering are the key steps and there are many questions which need to be asked and answered should be well understood.
Network mergers and acquisitions is also called as Network integration.
Below are the key points for any type of network mergers and acquisitions projects.
- Business analysis and information gathering
OSPFv2 by default setup only one adjacency over a single link. But this can be an issue some time and as a network designer you should understand the consequences and know the available solutions.
Placing a link in wrong OSPF area can create an OSPF sub optimal routing especially in hub and spoke topology.
In IS-IS or OSPFv3, this wouldn’t be an issue because IS-IS and OSPFv3 allow link to be placed in more than area or level. (In IS-IS, area is assigned to the router, not to the link. Thus I use level keyword)
Let’s look at the below network to understand what is the issue and how OSPF multi-area adjacency can solve the sub optimal routing problem. Read more
IS-IS Design considerations on MPLS backbone
Using IS-IS with MPLS require some important design considerations. IS-IS as a scalable link state routing protocol has been used in the Service Provider networks for decades.
In fact, eight of the largest nine Service Providers use IS-IS routing protocol on their network as of today. Read more
BGP Peering is an agreement between different Service Providers. It is an EBGP neighborship between different Service Providers to send BGP traffic between them without paying upstream Service Provider.
To understand BGP peering, first we must understand how networks are connected to each other on the Internet. The Internet is a collection of many individual networks, which interconnect with each other under the common goal of ensuring global reachability between any two points.
BGP Peering and Transit Links
What is reliability in networking ? Why reliability is an important design tool ? I will provide the answers of these questions with the examples in this post.
Reliability is within the reasonable amount of time, which depends on the application type and architecture, delivering the legitimate packets from source to destination.
This time is known as delay or latency and it is one of the packet delivery parameters. Consistency of delay known as jitter and it is very important for some type of applications such as voice and video, jitter is our second delivery parameters.
Let’s start with this IP network shown below (Figure-1).
Figure-1 IBGP Next Hop handling in IP networks
You always wonder how fast is your network, right? How long does it take the information travel over the network?
I will share with you this special article, which you can use to find the speed of your network and define it with a numerical number.
I will use ring, partial mesh and full-mesh physical topologies to explain the concept.
Note : I assume bandwidth of all the links in the examples are the same for simplicity.
Pim sparse mode – Multicast is used to send the data to the multiple receivers at the same time. Multicast reduces the load on the servers (Senders/Source in multicast term), provides efficient capacity usage on the network links.