A Layer 2 switch and a Layer 3 switch are both networking devices that allow for communication between devices on a network. However, they each serve a different purpose and work in different ways.
In this blog post, we will compare these two types of switches and discuss the benefits of each. By the end of this post, you should better understand the differences between layer 2 and layer 3 switches and which one is right for your needs.
Layer 2 vs Layer 3 Switch: Description
A layer 2 switch, also known as a data link layer switch, operates at the data link level of the OSI model. It is used in Local Area Networks (LAN) to connect various devices and provide efficient communication between them.
Layer 3 switch is a networking device that combines the functions of a switch and a router. It operates at the third layer (the network layer) of the OSI model, allowing it to route traffic between different subnets and networks while also managing data transmission within a single network.
Layer 2 switch uses Media Access Control (MAC) addresses to process and forward data within a LAN. This differs from a Layer 3 switch, which also operates at the network layer and can route data based on network addresses in addition to using MAC addresses. In practice, a combination of Layer 2 and Layer 3 switches can be used in larger networks for maximum efficiency.
Unlike routers, layer 2 switches do not create or break apart network packets, making them faster in processing and forwarding data. However, they cannot break apart broadcast domains or connect different LANs as routers can.
Layer 2 vs Layer 3 Switch: Pros and Cons
Both Layer 2 and Layer 3 serve the important function of connecting devices on a network and facilitating communication between them, but they operate at different levels within the network protocols.
To make deciding easier, let's talk about some of the major differences between layer 2 vs layer 3 switches.
One of the major differences when it comes to Layer 2 vs Layer 3 switches is their processing capability. Layer 2 switches operate solely on the data link layer, only reading the source and destination media access control (MAC) addresses of incoming packets. This means that they do not need to read the network layer (layer 3) addresses, which speeds up their processing time.
Layer 3 switches, on the other hand, can read both MAC and network addresses. While this adds versatility and allows for more sophisticated routing capabilities, it also slows down the processing time as compared to a purely layer 2 switch.
Layer 2 vs Layer 3 Switch: Which Is Better?
Neither Layer 3 nor Layer 2 networking is superior to the other. Both layers of the OSI have a function in network performance architecture.
A Layer 2 network, on the other hand, would be more beneficial for communicating among two computers in the same office that are close together, as opposed to a bigger network that would not be affected by congestion.
L3 network switches, on the other hand, are better for managing network traffic across multiple locations and over the internet due to their ability to route IP addresses. This underlines the importance of looking at these layers of abstraction as switches rather than routers.
Ultimately, the best choice depends on the needs of your specific network. A larger, more complex network may benefit from the versatility of a Layer 3 switch, while a smaller network may function better with the increased speed of a Layer 2 model.
As always, consult with networking professionals to find the best answer when it comes to Layer 2 vs Layer 3 switches. If you want to find more information about Layer 2 vs Layer 3 switches and how to configure them, you can read this guide by Cisco.
You must to check our course about Layer 2 Technologies Lab on CCIE Enterprise Infrastructure Training Lab.