Total 286 Blogs

Created by - Orhan Ergun

Telecom Operator Network Design Training

I missed writing , missed writing a post lot on the website specifically !. Because I know you are reading right now and wonder where I have been. I just checked and seen that my last post was on October 26. More than 2 months , I didn’t share anything on the website. I wanted to come here and share something , technical or social , but believe me guys November and December 2017 was so busy from my side. One of the activity which took my time during this period was Telecom Operator design training which I did in Kenya/Nairobi on November. Safaricom Kenya – Incumbent Telecom Operator/Internet Service Provider. It was 5 days training and IP/MPLS Backbone planners , Transport network engineers, mobile access and core engineers , fix and mobile wireless service engineers (They have very good fiber penetration in the country) many people attended this training. Most of the topics were from my CCDE training blueprint but after couple discussions with their lead engineers, we removed CCDE Practical scenarios and couple other topics , as they won’t attend CCDE exam , but added other technologies which they are considering to implement and some of those technologies is already in trial. For the confidentiality, I cannot tell you what was those newly added topics to my training curriculum, but I just wanted to say that, I adjusted the training agenda based on their needs. Overall, we spent more than 40 hours and more than 20 hours of the training was just related with their end to end network design. They have many different services , FTTx, 2G, 3G, LTE , Metro Ethernet , VPN Services , Satellite and so on. They are the biggest in Kenya in terms of number of customers. I already planned couple other Telecom Design training in 2018 and will update about those trainings and the feedback of the attendees. Now, it is time to share some feedback from Safaricom Kenya attendees. Note : If you would like to bring me for an Onsite training to your company, to talk about your company’s design please contact with [email protected] , they arrange technical discussions with me for the customized training. Andrew Masila – Architecture and Service at Safaricom Limited Your class was very useful and served as a valuable addition to my experience in telecommunications, architectures, quality of experience and content delivery networks. I will definitely use the knowledge acquired to make more sound business decisions and investment as well optimize operations in my organizational unit with a fit for purpose network. Most important is the approach in understanding exactly why a certain option has been chosen. Jackson Mutie – Packet Core Engineer at Safaricom  It was nice to be your student and enjoyed the MPLS TE  technology and network design principles sections. The network is about to evolve in design so I hope to be able to reach out to you and discuss various design and architecture options. Kind Regards, Jackson Stephen Njoroge Njuguna – Subject Matter Expert – Transport Network at Safaricom Your training was quite relevant and practical, since we were able to relate the theory covered to actual scenarios on our network and identify areas of improvement. Thanks also for your encouragement to start the CCDE journey and making it look achievable. Silas Kimathi Borona – Senior Network Planning Engineer I attended Orhan Ergun CCDE course and I must say it was remarkable . It was well  illustrated ,kin on current and advanced technologies .He surpassed my expectation i.e. Quality , Depth of Knowledge, Well-structured online Resources and Quizzes . Intriguing eye-Opener!

Published - Fri, 08 Nov 2019

Created by - Orhan Ergun

Wireless ISPs Spectrum Problem

Wireless ISPs also known as WISP mostly use unlicensed frequency spectrum. Frequency spectrum is the most critical asset for the Mobile and Wireless networks and it is sold in auctions for 100s of millions of dollars. Frequency spectrum is managed by the governments and governments in general, sell frequency spectrum in auctions. And some frequencies are really expensive, I am talking about 100s of millions of dollars. But frequency spectrum is so important  ? Why it is a problem with Wireless Internet Service Providers ? What is Wireless Internet Service Provider in the first place ? I explain all these questions during my Telecom Training but I wanted to share below post with you. Below you will find a very nice write up from one of the founding members of the Wireless Internet Service Providers Association (WISPA). Although it is written for the U.S government, situation is the same in every country for the Wireless Internet Service Providers. Congress – Stop Selling Our Airwaves! by John Scrivner Do you have little or no access to broadband (high speed) Internet? Then forward this note to your Congressman to get this fixed. Broadband is something most Americans take for granted. That is unless they live in remote rural areas where cable modems and DSL are rarely available. For rural Americans real access to broadband is limited at best and often is non-existent. Thousands of small companies called WISPs (Wireless Internet Service Providers) have been working for over a decade to bring people broadband in the harder to reach areas of the United States. Thousands of United States WISPs use radio airwaves , also known as spectrum, to transmit broadband through the air from central locations to customers throughout rural parts of America. WISPs are usually started up by a local person with technical knowledge who is an entrepreneur and has decided to take on the effort to bring broadband to their neighborhood, their town or even their whole county. WISPs transmit from existing small towers, water towers, tall building roofs, grain silos, whatever it takes to deliver broadband through the air. They fund their operations using all they have, they borrow against all assets they own, they spend all their savings. There is at least one WISP who was a family farmer and actually “sold the farm” to build the WISP he started in rural Indiana. WISPs are a growing part of our economy employing tens of thousands of Americans to help them serve broadband to rural America. WISPs work against many obstacles to build broadband into areas where the population is so small that a business case would not normally work. By being frugal and doing much of the work themselves WISPs have found a way to make this a thriving business by solving the “digital divide” for their neighbors while earning a good living and often hiring others in their area to help them. There is one obstacle that all WISPs face that is not only preventing millions of Americans from having access to broadband now but is threatening to kill their industry completely. SPECTRUM AUCTIONS ARE KILLING WISPS AND ARE PREVENTING AMERICANS FROM HAVING BROADBAND. There is a dirty little secret hidden in plain sight in the United States. If big businesses were bribing the government to prevent competing small businesses from having access to government owned assets and reserving these assets for themselves one would think we would see people calling to have these people tried for corruption. Instead we are seeing it happening regularly with practically nobody giving it a second thought. It may be a much more formal and open process than bribes but the net effect of Spectrum Auctions is exactly the same. Big Businesses are the only winners of these spectrum auctions and WISPs are left with no access to good spectrum. Spectrum is to a WISP what good land is to a farmer. Without good land a farmer would not be able to deliver much food to market. At this time there is no practical way for a WISP to reach all homes and businesses within what should be the coverage area of their tower locations. The reason is that WISPs have ZERO access to good quality spectrum. WISPs have to use uinlicensed spectrum which has no protections against interference. It is shared by other users of the frequencies. This spectrum is only barely usable for the delivery of broadband when there are trees or other obsructions blocking clear line of sight to the WISP tower locations. Low power restrictions, noise and higher frequencies of the unlicensed spectrum mean that only a portion of potential customers can be served within WISP tower locations. Depsite these limitations WISPs have built their entire business on using these unlicesned frequencies to bring broadband to where it never was before. If WISPs had access to good spectrum then they would be able to build higher quality wireless broadband which would be available to all rural Americans. Plentiful access to good quality spectrum would also mean that prices would lower as more people per tower would be buying the service which would allow for a better return on investment for each tower built. Spectrum Auctions happen now because Congress tells the FCC they have to sell off the all-important spectrum licenses at auction as opposed to allowing WISPs and others to pay for licenses with monthly fees or register them for free if they prove they are serving the public good with broadband. Congress and the FCC tell the public that auctions are good because they raise billions of dollars in auction revenues. If Spectrum Auctions are so good for America then why do we still have large areas where services are not available after 20 years of selling off spectrum to the highest bidder? Why are we selling off the airwaves to the highest bidders and then turning around and giving away tax money for people to build broadband (aka broadband stimulus and USDA grants)? I have a novel idea for Congress and the FCC. Stop selling off the airwaves to big business and stop paying us to build broadband. Let’s just cut to the chase and get the spectrum out to the people who need it. Let’s stop pretending that selling off spectrum is the in America’s best interest. It is quite the opposite. On the surface raising money from spectrum acutions looks like the government is being responsible but auctions are causing great harm. To put this into perspective please imagine for a moment that a US “Farm and Crop Commission” (FCC for short) suddenly held property rights to all farm ground outside of the big cities in the United States. The only exceptions would be ground that was rocky or otherwise was not capable of real agriculture. Now imagine that Congress tells the FCC that the only access to this ground by family farmers or anyone else would be to buy it at auction. Now imagine that only a small portion of all the farm ground is made available at auction once every 5 to 10 years. Now imagine that the smallest parcel of ground would be millions of acres in 12 county wide sized blocks of ground with no ability to buy smaller parcels. Next the FCC sets minimum auction price for a parcel of the ground at $5 Million dollars. There would be ZERO chance of a single farmer having access to even 1 acre of good quality farm ground in this scenario. How many family farmers do you think would survive trying to grow crops on the few rocky outcroppings on hillsides with no property rights of any kind? How much do you think food would cost if there were only 5 mega-farmers in the United States who grew all the food? Do you think we could get enough food to live if we only had 5 farmers who held a monopoly position on the only farm ground available to be farmed in the United States? To a WISP and to all American citizens, spectrum is just like farm land and broadband is just like food. This is a travesty. I think once you really read the FCC / farm land metaphor above and understand what is going on then you will understand why the number one obstacle to Americans having access to cheap and plentiful broadband across the entire country is that WISPs (aka your broadband family farmers) are being deinied access to good quality spectrum under reasonable terms. WISPs do not expect a free ride. WISPs will pay good money for access to good spectrum. WISPs will pay license fees over time or raise enough money to buy a license for each tower as they build these locations. What we CANNOT do is pay millions or billions of dollars for access to good quality spectrum and try to compete at these spectrum auctions with the likes of at&t, Verzon, Sprint, etc.. We will lose every time in that scenario. So we need Congress to act now today. We need them to tell the FCC to give us access to unused spectrum now. The auctions need to end now. The way to simulate the economy and give everyone broadband is one simple solution and it does not cost us a penny. We need to make spectrum available for broadband use in the US for free. Once a WISP, cable company, phone company, municipality or other organization uses this spectrum to serve up broadband to a significant portion of an area the FCC needs to grant an exclusive license to the entitiy serving the broadband at that location. Think of it as homesteading. In the past the US needed to grow into the land westward so they allowed people free access to land if they settled it and lived on it and made it their own. That is how we quickly expanded our great country. We need to do the same thing now with broadband. We need to let people homestead the spectrum to grow our access to broadband. Spectrum Homesteading will do just that.Congress – we plead with you now – stop auctioning off our spectrum and let us homestead it now. Pass a Spectrum Homesteading Act and let the free market flourish in building broadband access to 100{ea8372c0850978052e20c0d53be15bc420c794e9b9b32f0ee9dfe0056552e01e} of Americans without a single penny of government subsidies.

Published - Fri, 08 Nov 2019

Created by - Orhan Ergun

May CCDE Practical exam results have been announced. Student feedbacks in this post!

Hello, May 2019 CCDE Practical exam results were announced a few days ago. I am happy to help 4 people to have their CCDE numbers on May 2019 exam. Congrats to Matt, Fredrik, Dmytro, and Schilling for passing CCDE Practical exam. They received their numbers! Let me help you to get it now ! The next Webex CCDE Class will start in 10 days! You can see Webex-based CCDE Courses by clicking here You can see Onsite/In-Class CCDE Courses by clicking here I would like to share their testimonials with you. Hope to see you in one of my classes soon.! Matt Cross – Technical Architect at Heartland – CCDE #2019::7 Orhan did an excellent job of filling in the gaps of knowledge that I had that took me to the finish line of the practical exam CCDE. The community of people that Orhan facilitates is both engaging and supportive of the journey to CCDE. Orhan was always quick to answer any email or chat messages that I sent him. Overall I am very happy with the time spent engaged in the material and Bootcamp. Thanks, Orhan! DmytroOsmachka – CCDE #2019::10 Orhan, I came, I learned and now I got my CCDE number! For those who prepare for the CCDE Practical exam, all you need is some experience and Orhan’s guidance! Thanks, Orhan for all your support. Shiling Ding – Sentinel Technologies – CCDE #2019::12 Just passed the CCDE Practical exam! I attended Orhan Ergun’s CCDE training program and used Orhan’s Instructor Led and Self-Paced CCDE training and Online CCDE Practical Scenarios during my CCDE journey. Orhan’s CCDE In-Depth book is an excellent summary book about almost all topics related to CCDE. Orhan’s practical scenarios are well organized and discussions in his Webex are very valuable. Orhan also from time to time hosts Webex lectures on different technology topics, I find it’s another revenue to refresh and strengthen my understanding of different topics. Orhan’s study group is very active, different peers share their experiences, discussion, and insight on not only the CCDE but also different technologies. I surely appreciate Orhan’s excellent training materials, constant guidance, and demonstrated dedication to help me get CCDE. As always, life is a constant learning experience, and CCDE is only one of the small steps! Please be aware: Many people still are not aware that we have started CCIE SP training. In fact, some students already passed and I will try to announce them periodically. You can have a look at the details of CCIE SP training by clicking here CCIE SP and CCDE together provide operational and design experience, thus I recommend you to get Bundle CCIE SP and CCDE Course.  See you in one of the upcoming CCDE training! 

Published - Fri, 08 Nov 2019

Created by - Orhan Ergun

Recommended Networking Resources for September 2019 Second Week

There are so many good resources for Network Engineers out there. I started to share the ones I liked last week. Click here to see September 2019, First Week Networking Recommended Resources. As you know, I will share 5 resource every week. There are so many in my list already, I can’t wait for the next week to share next recommended 5 resources! Let’s start. This post is explaining the basics of Active-Active Datacenter concept.https://www.missioncriticalmagazine.com/blogs/14-the-mission-critical-blog/post/89161-architecting-for-activeactive-data-centers BGP Information Security is very important to secure Global Internet. Origin Validation can be done in two ways, IRR and RPKI, Networks can have both at the same time. Below post explains RPKI (Resource Public Key Infrastructure) in very good detail.https://blog.cloudflare.com/rpki-details/ BIER (Bit Indexed Explicit Replication) is very cool new tool for scalable IP and MPLS Multicast Design. When I explain it in few words, I say, Segment Routing removes the requirement of LDP and RSVP for Transport LSP in MPLS, BIER does the same thing for Multicast Traffic. You don’t need PIM, mLDP etc.Below Packet Pusher podcast is all about BIER and couple other cool Datacenter specific Routing protocols (RFC 7938 type of Datacenter routing protocol) RIFT and BGP+SFC.PQ Show 115: BIER, RIFT & BGP+SFC At IETF 98 Is IPv6 faster than IPv4? Let’s try to understand what are the considerations IPv4 or IPv6 can be faster. Below APNIC post have some good statistics as well. Why is IPv6 faster? We have Flat Internet concept. Many large ASes exchange traffic in either Private or Public Peering with each other directly. Those networks are directly connected and their traffic is just one hop away. This effectively reduces average AS-Path length to 4 in Global Internet Routing Table (Commonly known as DFZ- Default Free Zone). This research paper is explaining with a great analysis about Flat Internet paradigm and how networks are just one hop away mostly in today Internet.

Published - Fri, 08 Nov 2019

Created by - Orhan Ergun

Recommended Networking Resources for September 2019 Third Week

There are so many good resources for Network Engineers out there. I started to share the ones I liked on beginning of this month. Click here to see previous Networking Recommended Resources. As you know, I share 5 resource every week. There are so many in my list already, I can’t wait for the next week to share next recommended 5 resources! Let’s start. 1. Below video is explaining different NAT concepts, specifically CGN (Carrier Grade NAT) and present some good statistics about usage of CGN in Mobile/Cellular Networks. 2. BGP Information Security is very important to secure Global Internet. BGP Leaks effect potentially millions of users when it happens. Below post explains ‘What is BGP Route Leak’ , starting from ‘What is BGP’ and shows an example how by starting intentional Route Leak to steal crypto currency. https://blog.cloudflare.com/bgp-leaks-and-crypto-currencies/ 3. Nice video on SD-WAN at DKNOG. Explaining some technical details but mainly stay at the architectural level. 4. For those who are looking to understand Diffserv (Differentiated Services) Quality of Service Architecture, must read RFC 4594. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4594 5. Today, most of the IP networks use PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast) when they have Multicast in their networks.Before PIM, DVMRP was deployed in many large scale networks. In the below video, GEANT (European Research Institute) explains how they deployed DVMRP and how they migrated from DVMRP to PIM, and the reasons for migration.

Published - Fri, 08 Nov 2019

Created by - Orhan Ergun

Recommended Networking Resources for September 2019 First Week

I would like to share with you every week some networking resources , can be video , article , book , diagram , another website etc. Whatever I believe can be useful for the computer network engineers, mobile network providers, satellite engineers ,transmission experts, datacenter engineers,  basically whatever I am interested in and I like, I will share in a blog post. There will not be any order of importance among the resources. You can open and go through anyone you want. I will try to limit the list with 5 resources as I want you to read the posts that I publish on the website. Sometimes can be more than 5 though! Let’s get started! TCP vs QUIC – Quic is a new transport protocol I think everyone should have a look at. What are the high level differences between them etc. TCP vs QUIC: A New Transport Protocol 2.  Below post explains how BGP As-Path prepending , when it is done more than couple times , can be dangerous for the attacks on BGP information security Excessive BGP AS-PATH prepending is a self-inflicted vulnerability 3.  This presentation is one of the best presentation about BGP Add-Path, or maybe it is not good to do Add-path. https://ripe60.ripe.net/presentations/Raszuk-To_add-paths_or_not_to_add-paths.pdf 4. In the below video, Randy Bush is talking about IPv6 Transition mechanisms and Operational reality of the different transition mechanisms. 5.  In the below white paper, you can have a look at recent enhancements in MPLS Traffic Engineering. Concept like RSVP- Multipath (TE++) is explained in the paper. http://www.sanog.org/resources/sanog27/SANOG27_Conference_RecentAdvancesInMPLS-TE.pdf If you would like to see more resources weekly, let me know in the comment box below. Whatever is your feedback, let us communicate in the comment section of the blog. Hope this will be useful for you! I love networking, I love helping people who like it!

Published - Fri, 08 Nov 2019

Created by - Orhan Ergun

Tech Field Day in Barcelona

I was in Barcelona last week, there was a Cisco Live as you might know. During the Cisco Live unfortunately I couldn't meet with people as I was invited them by Tech Field Day and recorded many great sessions together. Cisco announced ACI in Cloud and there was presentations about it. If you don't know the format of Tech Field Day, companies present their most recent innovations , technologies and group of experts ask the questions , share their comments during the presentations. Sessions are streamed live and recordings are shared on Tech Field Day youtube channel. Network verification, assurance and intent based networking is a hot topic in the industry and during TFDx (Tech Field Day Extra), Forward Networks presented their solution. In the verification area, there are couple serious vendors; IP Fabric and Forward Networks are two of them and I closely follow their latest enhancements. I have been supporting IP Fabric for some time and many times I shared my thoughts on social media (Mostly I use Linkedin) about them. If you are operating a network, especially medium or large scale networks, in order to reduce manual tasks , bring automation to your operation , reduce troubleshooting time , remove single point of failure from your network in a dynamic manner and many other important operational capability. I visited their booth at Barcelona Cisco Live 2019, and saw that many people were interested their solution. Cisco , Forward Networks and AVI Networks were the presenters in TFD 2019 at Barcelona and I enjoyed their presentations mostly, when there is no boring marketing slides. I recommend you to check Tech Field Day Youtube channel to watch the presentations. It was not only presentations I liked, but , as a city Barcelona was great too. Very clean and wide roads , respectful people , easy communication (okay not maybe with taxi drivers) were just couple good things I can tell you about Barcelona. I tried to eat Duck at dinner , and it was not a good experience though. Everyday we got the taxi from the Hotel to the convention center. If you don't know who are in the picture. Left to Right , Tom Hollingsworth , Orhan Ergun , Ivan Papeljnak. My taxi friends, usual suspects at Barcelona. Tom is a great guy, delivering Tech Field Day , Ivan is writing articles on ipspace.net and joining conferences , public speaking and author. I had a good times with them overall and looking forward for the next events. There was many other nice guys, expert in their fields (Virtualization , Security etc.) who were the delegate same as me, they are in the below picture. Last but not least, I will share my thoughts and some technical information for their products and the recent announcements of the companies which were in the TFDx 2019. Cisco , Forward Networks and AVI Networks.

Published - Fri, 08 Nov 2019